8 Major Types of Cultivation Practices in India

The world knows about the diversity of India. Indian agriculture is also quite diverse, with different regions, landscapes, and tastes; Indian farmers have followed other types of cultivation practices for centuries.


This article will tell you about the significant farming methods followed by Indian farmers for centuries and how they are growing crops successfully.

8 Types of Cultivation Methods in India

Subsistence Farming

In this cultivation process, a farmer plants crops and rears livestock with the specific intention of being used by that farmer’s household alone. It is a backward mode of farming that, on the one hand, has been preserving the Indian farming community for generations.


Common food crops grown by Indian farmers include rice, wheat, millet, and vegetables, which are sometimes intercropped to improve soil productivity.

Commercial Farming

A commercial farmer practices agriculture so as to sell the produce and earn an income or make profits. In fact, they feed industries and households and directly provide raw commodities to the human life’s population. Such farming is practiced to increase production and obtain more yields.


Indian farmers also use different techniques, such as mechanization in planting and harvesting, the use of irrigation, and proper use of fertilizers and pesticides. The commercial farming method mainly deals with the sale and profit of the business, and it is done to meet the market expectations.

Extensive Farming

In this cultivation method, a farmer practices agriculture on a large scale yet employs little capital and labor. Large-scale farming is most appropriate in areas that have low population densities, the areas that lack land scarcity.


At other times, pastoral farming provides a place for livestock such as cows, sheep, and goats to graze on the gigantic grasslands or rangelands. In extensive farming, sometimes the yields may be lower, but an Indian farmer makes most of the available resources while minimizing costs and environmental impact.

Mixed Farming

A farmer who knows diversification can easily practice Mixed farming. In these ways of cultivation, a farmer cultivated a number of crops such as rice, wheat, pulses, vegetables, etc., and a farmer also kept dairy cattle GOATS OR POULTRY.


In this way, the farmer feeds his animals with the crop remains as well as uses animal manure as natural fertilizer for his fields.

Organic Farming

Such farming is one of the most sustainable and friendly methods of cultivation that is pleasing to the environment. An organic farmer would not apply synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to their farming. Instead, they utilize organic fertilizers such as compost and manure to control pests and diseases through bio-control.


Their farming activities include crop rotation, mulching, and intercropping, which are used as strategies for maintaining soil fertility and encouraging diversification. Certified organic agriculture is the only proper method of obtaining healthy, chemical-free food and maintaining the fragile balance of your plot.

Shifting Cultivation

Shifting cultivation remained the mainstay of the economies of Indigenous peoples for centuries. This also goes with the slash and burn feature, which entails the cutting and burning of vegetation with the aim of preparing a piece of land for cultivation, using it for a few seasons before leaving it idle to rest.


This technique may be time-consuming and is now regarded as unprofitable; however, the majority of the population in the hill and the forest-populated regions of India continues using this method to accomplish their sustenance needs.

Plantation Farming

Plantation farming is a large-scale commercial operation that focuses on growing a single cash crop for export or industrial use. This method of cultivation can be for any crops like tea, coffee, rubber, or spices, which require specific climatic conditions and labor-intensive processes.


Plantations are large farms and may also involve thousands of acres of land and may involve many employees of different classes, such as professional employees and supervisors, waged employees, and others. Plantation farming is a vital sector in India that supports the country’s agricultural exports.

Dryland & Wetland Farming

Dryland farming itself is defined as a method of farming without or with limited rainfall accompanied by the scarcity of water. As a norm, in dry farming, the Indian farmers were restricted to sowing and cultivating crops that are capable of growing in arid or semi-arid conditions, including millets, pulses, or oilseeds, using means such as water conservation and moisture retention.


Wetland farming is all about cultivating rice and other crops in low-lying areas with abundant water supply. Some Indian farmers also use methods like puddling and transplanting to ensure optimal growth.


We know you are a farmer and wanted to understand the different types of cultivation methods in India. Now that you know, what is one thing that makes any farm successful and profitable?

It is the perfect farm equipment; when you have an ideal agriculture spray pump, tractor, harvesters, threshers, etc, your farm’s productivity gets doubled. Buy the ideal tools for your farming needs and grow your farm successfully.

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